for those RE.INVENTORS who are still putting their pricelists together, from Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders:
One may seek answers from two kinds of sources— the “how to” literature on menu design, and the psycho- logical literature on position effects. Familiar position effects such as primacy and recency refer to stimuli pre- sented sequentially, and their dependent variable is not usually choice. But the effect called “edge avoidance” (Rubinstein, Tversky & Heller, 1986), “centrality prefer- ences” (Shaw et al., 2000), “middle bias” (e.g., Attali & Bar-Hillel, 2003), or “center-stage effect” (Valenzuela & Raghubir, 2009) refers to choice from among simultane- ously presented options—and the various names indicate the typical findings: “People choosing from an array of identical options reliably prefer the middle ones” (Chris- tenfeld, 1995). When items are not identical, the effect’s manifestation is that when options are presented in the middle of an array they are chosen more often than when they are presented on its edges.